(Remember how the “Old Guard” at EDDC blithely cancelled the Annual Meeting last May, blocking the transfer of power? – Owl)
What a strange moment of ambivalence this is. The vaccination programme seems to have so far worked its expected wonders, the lifting of key restrictions looms, and a fragile sense of optimism has been boosted by balmy weather. But there is a slowly rising unease about something that may yet cut across that increasingly upbeat mood: the fact that this is a dangerous moment for both our democracy, and the relationship between the state and society.
John Harris www.theguardian.com
Everywhere you look, there are high-ranking Conservatives blithely evading scrutiny, and the government is thereby slipping free of meaningful constraints. From the prime minister’s relationship with the “technology entrepreneur” Jennifer Arcuri and her access to public funds and favours, to the stink given off by David Cameron’s efforts on behalf of the financier Lex Greensill, recent headlines have confirmed that old-fashioned ideas of probity now count for very little at all. Much the same applies to the way Covid-related contracts and jobs have been brazenly handed to associates of senior Tories.
An associated theme that has run through Boris Johnson’s time in office has been the sidelining of parliament: the attempt to suspend it for five weeks during the Brexit contortions of 2019, the pitiful levels of debate and scrutiny allowed on coronavirus rules and legislation, and the shameful rushing-through of the new police, crime, sentencing and courts bill. The latter, of course, was at the heart of protests and disturbances in Bristol – and, as a matter of implication, those awful scenes on Clapham Common. And in the images of the police being so reckless and Tory high-ups seemingly acting with impunity, you see the same thing: power unchecked, doing what it wants because it knows it can.
At the heart of all this is something awkward and difficult. Both this government’s ingrained arrogance and the tendency of the British state to turn nasty and authoritarian were obviously present before the pandemic. But Covid has proved to be the perfect pretext for both to balloon.
To point that out does not turn you into Laurence Fox. It seems perfectly reasonable to reluctantly believe that lockdowns have been necessary, but also to worry about the nature of many of the restrictions, the way they have been railroaded through, and the precedents that have been set. As the worst of the pandemic recedes, moreover, unease about these things ought to rapidly take the form of sustained vigilance. Whatever Johnson may say, restrictions are not likely to shrink to nothing by the end of June, and thanks to Covid variants lockdowns could yet return. But we also need to think about what kind of long-term future we have unwittingly been creating for the past 13 months.
That period has seen the collective sacrifice of individual wants and needs for the collective good, something that people on the left have understandably cheered. But viewed from a slightly different perspective, the UK’s Covid experience has also amounted to a huge trial of people’s willingness to accept mind-boggling extensions of the state’s reach, in which predictions of mass “fatigue” have failed to materialise.
People in positions of authority are hardly likely to forget such a basic lesson in the balance between power and consent. So, when another crisis materialises, what then? The high-profile human rights lawyer Adam Wagner, one of the past year’s most questioning voices, has a possible answer: “Come the next great threat, we have set the marker: parliament will not have a say and will hardly raise a whimper; decisions will be made on a whim by whichever person, however capricious, happens to be behind a particular ministerial desk.”
What is already happening actually suggests something even worse: as we saw in the era of the “war on terror”, even as the current panic dies down, powers that were initially presented as temporary look set to endure. As the civil rights pressure group Liberty puts it, the restrictions on protest in the police, crime, sentencing and courts bill amount to a brazen quest to “use this public health crisis as cover to make emergency measures permanent”. There is a similar flavour to the bill’s proposed crackdown on “unauthorised encampments”, and what it will mean for Gypsy and Traveller communities – another attempt to sustain the politics of enforced conformity, with yet another Covid resonance: the fact that in a country that has been endlessly told to “stay home”, being nomadic is now close to being simply deemed criminal.
And there is the prospect of vaccine passports (or, to use officialspeak, a “Covid certification scheme”), something Johnson will talk about on Monday. Initial briefings have emphasised the idea’s supposedly in-built limitations, and framed it as the key to reviving festivals, sport events and nightclubs. The scheme’s opponents will presumably be maligned as overheated killjoys. But there are obvious reasons to feel uneasy. In the context of Tory politics, restricting certain people’s participation in everyday life is hardly new: for almost 10 years it has defined the Home Office’s miserable “hostile environment” doctrine. Any such system will collide with awkward social facts – such as the fact that vaccination rates have been comparatively low in many communities of colour. And given the tools to do so, wouldn’t ministers sooner or later want to push similar logic into criminal justice, the “conditionality” of benefits, and much more besides?
For the past year, the UK’s attempt at a culture war has encouraged people on the left to zealously argue for lockdowns and restrictions, against elements on the right who have often opposed not just those measures, but any insistence that Covid-19 was a grave threat. Now, there are signs of a possible realignment: the Labour leadership’s switch from abstaining on the aforementioned bill to voting against it, Keir Starmer’s recent opinion that vaccine passports would be “un-British”; the fact that 21 Labour MPs – largely drawn from the party’s dissident left, but with a few names from elsewhere – recently defied the whip and opposed the renewal of the draconian Coronavirus Act 2020. But the debate about democracy, the state and civil liberties remains weakened by the decline of the Liberal Democrats, the smallness of the Green party – and, in an age when “liberal” often seems to have become an insult, a broader sense that that element of progressive politics has been mislaid.
It needs to return, so we can at last tackle hugely increased state power, and the people at the top who clearly think they can get away with just about anything. The fusion of the two threatens an immediate future that could be grim: ice-creams, picnics and “normality” amid sirens, searches and a model of government that’s devoid of any real checks and restraints. Whatever we endured the past year for, it was surely not that.
- John Harris is a Guardian columnist
More than 60 members of David Cameron’s administration have taken up private-sector jobs with some link to their Government portfolio within two years of stepping down, official records reveal.
By Dean Kirby, Hugo Gye inews.co.uk
An analysis by i of decisions published by the watchdog, which polices appointments taken up by former insiders, shows at least 66 ministers and special advisers have been given the green light to accept a paid position in an industry connected to the job they held in Government.
These are the ministers and the jobs about which they sought advice from the Advisory Committee on Business Appointments:
Adviser at investment manager Blackrock, editor of the Evening Standard, visiting fellow at Stanford University, chair of advisory committee at investment firm Exor. David Cameron’s closest ally was widely ridiculed for the number of jobs he took on after leaving office, and has also been given a number of unpaid positions. The roles with finance firms are most likely to overlap with his former work at the Treasury.
Transport Secretary 2010-11, Defence Secretary 2011-14, Foreign Secretary 2014-16, Chancellor 2016-19
Partner at fund manager Buckthorn, senior adviser at fintech bank OakNorth, non-executive director at packaging company Ardagh Group. Lord Hammond has notified the appointments watchdog of 13 different jobs or consultancy appointments in less than two years. Some of his new employers, including Buckthorn and OakNorth, had dealings with the Treasury when he was in charge.
Energy Secretary 2015-16, Home Secretary 2016-18, Work and Pensions Secretary 2018-19
Senior adviser at consultancy Teneo, chair of energy firm Equinor, senior adviser at cyber-security firm Darktrace. The former Cabinet minister who resigned from the Home Office over Windrush before being brought back has held a number of positions some of which are directly linked to her work overseeing energy and security policy.
Energy minister 2013-14, Defence Secretary 2014-17
Chair of housebuilder Avanton, consultancy work with engineering company Wilton Engineering Services. Sir Michael was allowed to work for Wilton despite having met the company’s boss when he was energy minister and awarded a contract for an offshore wind farm which the firm was involved in building.
Justice Secretary 2012-15, Leader of the Commons 2015-16, Transport Secretary 2016-19
Strategic adviser to Hutchison Ports Europe As Transport Secretary Mr Grayling met with Hutchison and took part in a “ground-breaking ceremony” at its site in Felixstowe. He took up a job with the company last year.
Treasury minister 2013-14, Education Secretary 2014-16, Culture Secretary 2019-20
Senior adviser to PR firm Grayling, consultant at law firm Travers Smith. Baroness Morgan told Acoba she met with a representative from Grayling when she was Culture Secretary. Her role at Travers Smith involves advising on tech policy, part of her portfolio in Government.
Employment minister 2015-16, International Development Secretary 2016-17, Home Secretary since 2019
Strategic adviser at communications company Viasat. After being sacked from Cabinet by Theresa May and before being brought back by Boris Johnson, Ms Patel advised Viasat on its work in Asia. She insisted there was no crossover between the company’s work and her previous position in the Department for International Development.
Chief Secretary to the Treasury 2015-16, trade minister 2016-18 and again since 2020
Political consultant to French bank BNP Paribas. In between his two stints as trade minister, Mr Hands advised BNP Paribas on “UK and European politics”. He said he had not met with the bank as a minister but had participated in discussions about the financial industry in general.
Culture Secretary 2014-15, Business Secretary 2015-16, Housing Secretary 2016-18, Home Secretary 2018-19, Chancellor 2019-20
Senior adviser to JP Morgan. Shortly after resigning from the Treasury last year, Mr Javid was appointed to a £150,000-a-year post advising the US-based investment bank JP Morgan. He said he had met with the company’s executives while in office but promised not to use his insider information to give it an advantage.
Cabinet Office minister 2014-15, Transport minister 2018-18, Minister for London 2018-18, Universities, Science Research and Innovation minister 2019-19
The brother of Prime Minister Boris Johnson resigned from the Cabinet in September 2019 and announced he would stand down at MP for Orpington, south-east London. Now Baron Johnson of Marylebone. Has taken appointments as a member of the board at Seminal Capital Holdings, advisor to Skyrora Ltd, non-executive director of Tech Nation, chairman of Access for Creative College, as council member and non-executive director at Dyson Institute of Technology Engineering, chair of Applyboard, senior fellow of Harvard Kennedy School, president’s professional at Kings College London, non-executive director and chairman of the board at TES TopCo Ltd and advisory board member for Noric Swiss GmbH.
Baron O’Shaughnessy of Maidenhead, a life peer since 2015. Government whip 2016-17. Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Health 2016-18
Has sought advice on appointments as external advisor, Bain and Co, non-executive director of the board, Health Data Research UK, member of the advisory council at the Centre for Science and Policy at the University of Cambridge, non-executive director at Albion Development VCT Plc, advisory board member and report writer for Onward Thinktank Ltd, the advisory council of Portland Communications, a speaker at Chartwell Speakers, a member of the project steering committee for Price Waterhouse Coopers, advisory member and patron of Tessa Jowell Brain Cancer Mission and director of Mayforth Consulting.
Under-Secretary for Syrian Refugees, 2015-16, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Pensions, 2016-17, Under-Secretary for Business and Industry, 2017-19
Left his role in the Department of Business in 2019. The committee wrote to him about his failure to seek advice in relation a role with APCO Worldwide.
Under-Secretary for Transport, 2012-14, Vice-chairman of the Conservative Party for London 2017-17, Health minister 2018-19
Had the whip removed and later restored after voting for a bill ruling out leaving the EU without a deal. The committee wrote to him about his failure to seek advice in relation to work as joint chairman of Public Policy Projects Ltd in 2020. He has sought advice about setting up and independent consultancy and taking commissions with Darwin Alternative Investment Management Ltd and OptiBiotix Health Plc.
Deputy chief Government Whip, Treasurer of the Household, 2015-17, Minister for Women, 2017-18, Minister for Skills and Apprenticeships 2017-19
Left her role in 2019. Has taken up appointments as an advisor for City and Guilds Group and an advisor and mentor for Pearson UK.
Lord Commissioner of the Treasury 2012-15, Defence Under-Secretary 2015-17, Armed Forces minister 2017-19
Lord Lancaster of Kimbolton left his role as Minister of the Armed Forces in 2019. Took up an appointment as a member of the Global Advisory Board, GFG Alliance, in August, 2020, and sought advice on setting up an independent consultancy and taking commissions with Pepper Shackleton Wellard.
Justice Secretary 2017-18, Minister for the Cabinet Office, 2018-19, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 2018-19
Left his role in 2019 and has sought the committee’s advice on setting up an independent consultancy and taking on commissions with Mitie Group Plc, Cicero/AMO, Finito Education Ltd.
Minister for Community and Social Care 2015-16, Minister for International Development 2017-19, Minister for the Middle East and North Africa 2017-19
Appointed Pro-Chancellor of Lancaster University in 2020. Has sought the committee’s advice about establishing an independent consultancy and commissions with GK Strategy Ltd, the Ambassador Partnership LLP, Global Partners Governance and Pall Mall Communications.
Under-Secretary for Wales, 2014-16, Welsh Secretary 2016-19
Appointed as senior advisor to the board of Veezu Ltd and advisor to BBI Group in 2020.
Minister of State for Asia and the Pacific 2017-19
Took up appointments in 2020 as a consultant to the Government of the Cayman Islands, non-executive chairman of Capital International Group and director of business development at the London School of Commerce.
Chief Secretary to the Treasury 2016-17, Work and Pensions Secretary 2017-18, Justice Secretary, 2018-19
Appointed head of Public Policy at Macfarlanes LLP in May 2020.
Minister for London, 2016-17, Housing and Planning minister 2016-17, Downing Street Chief of Staff, 2017-19
Sought the committee’s advice about setting up an independent consultancy and taking up commissions with PricewaterhouseCooper, Arcadis NV, Avonhurst LLP and Barratt Developments. Appointed non-executive director of the Clarion Housing Group in 2019.
Mr Javid was appointed to a £150,000-a-year post advising the US-based investment bank JP Morgan (Photo: JESSICA TAYLOR/UK PARLIAMENT/AFP via Getty)
Minister Without Portfolio 2013-14, Social Security Minister 2015-16, Transport Minister 2016-18
Sought advice on taking up appointments as an advisor with the Chartered Institution of Further Education, president of the Highbury Burton Saudi Arabia and with BB Energy Trading and Esharelife Ltd.
Energy and Intellectual Property Minister, 2016-16. Commercial Secretary to the Treasury, 2016-17
Life peer since 2013. Appointed chairman of Assured Food Standards Ltd in 2017. The committee also gave advice on appointments as a non-executive director to Capita Plc, an adviser at Bridge Farm Group, non-executive director at Health Data Research UK, non-executive director of Secure Trust Bank and as a trustee of Thomson Reuters.
Baron Prior of Brampton. Under-Secretary National Health Services Productivity 2015-16, Under-Secretary for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy 2016-17
The committee gave advice to Lord Prior on being a senior advisor to Carnall Farrar, a senior adviser at Lazard and chairman of the University College of London Hospital Foundation Trust.
Paymaster General 2016-17, Cabinet Office Minister 2016-17
Advice was given on appointments as a fellow of practice at Blavatnik School of Government in 2018, and senior advisor on a research project for McKinsey and Company looking at government transformation projects around the world, also in 2018.
A life peer since 2015. Climate Change Minister, 2010-14
Sought advice on becoming chair of global sustainability practice at Gyro Ltd , director of the European Board of the Environmental Defense Fund Ltd, senior advisor to Powerhive Inc, and senior advisor to Equinox Energy Capital Ltd, and chairman of the international advisory board of Innasol Group Ltd, and director of Pont Street Capital. Also sought advice on setting up an independent consultancy and took up a commission with Ras Al Khaimah Development LLC, and non-executive Director of llioss Group, non-executive director of Dragon Harvest Group and non-executive Director, Lightsource Renewable Energy Ltd.
Baroness Blackwood of North Oxford. Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Life Science, 2019-2020
Baroness Blackwood sought the Committee’s advice about taking up an appointment as chair with Public Policy Projects and took up the appointment in 2020.
Sir Julian Brazier
Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Reserves 2014-16
Sought advice on being a non-executive director at Samson DVM Limited, chairman at Pathway Risk Management, a member of a Reference Group at the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, a member at the South East Reserve Forces’ and Cadets’ Association, as a trustee at the Summer Camps Trust and a member of the Council of the Air League.
Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Exiting the EU, 2016-17
Took up the role of senior adviser to the Group Executive Chairman, Banco Santander S.A (Santander) in 2017.
Baron Deighton. Served as Commercial Secretary to the Treasury 2013-15
Appointed non-executive director at Square Inc in 2016, executive chairman of Heathrow Airport Holdings Ltd, non-executive director of Holdingham Group, and the chair of a governance review for the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
Lord Commissioner of the Treasury 2010-12, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Brexit 2019-20 and currently Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Africa
Asked for advice on roles as an advisor to TLG Capital Investments Ltd and as an advisor to Brand Communications Group.
International Development minister 2010-14, Minister for Europe and the Americas 2016-19
Took up a role as non-executive director of Fujairah Refining Ltd in 2016.
Lord William Hague of Richmond. Foreign Secretary, 2010-14, Leader of the House of Commons, 2014-15, First Secretary of State 2010-15
Appointments since 2014 have been non-executive director, Intercontinental Exchange Inc, chairman of the Royal United Services Institute, chairman of the International Advisory Group at Linklaters LLP, senior advisor at Teneo Holdings and a consultant at Citigroup.
Grant Shapps ought the committee’s advice about taking an appointment with Avanti Communications Group in 2017 (Photo: David Cliff/Anadolu Agency via Getty)
Minister of State for Immigration, 2012-14, Minister of State for Disabled People, 2014-15, Chief Whip, 2015-2016
Announced his appointment as senior adviser to the law firm DWF LLP in February 2017. The watchdog pointed out to Mr Harper that his new employer “has an existing relationship with your former department” but allowed him to take up the appointment. He remains MP for the Forest of Dean.
Financial Secretary to the Treasury, 2010-12, Employment Minister 2012-13
He was advised on positions as a senior adviser at PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), a non-executive director of the London Stock Exchange (LSE), chair of Flood Re and senior adviser to Markit Limited.
Secretary of State for Heath, 2010-12, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, 2012-14, Leader of the House of Commons, 2012-14
Was given advice on positions as chair of the UK-Japan 21st Century Group, associate at Low Associates, an adviser for UK Active, a consultant at Bain & Company, an adviser/consultant at The Blackstone Group International Partners LLP, and as a speaker at Dod’s Training.
Lord Maude of Horsham. Former Chairman of the Conservative Party, Minister for the Cabinet Office 2010-15, Minister for Trade and investment. 2015-16
Sought advice on the following positions: As a member of the International Consultative Council of the Astana International Financial Centre, a senior adviser at Stephens Europe Ltd, advisory board member, Fine Instrument Fund, advisory board member, IFM Investors, chair of the board of Brighton College International Schools, advisory board member, GPW, chairman, Cogent Elliott Group Ltd, senior adviser, Covington & Burling LLP, advisory board member, OakNorth Bank, non-executive director, Scale-Up Institute, advisory board member at Anvest Partners and about establishing an independent consultancy.
Sir Bob Neill
Under-Secretary for London, Local Government and Planning, 2010-12. Chair of the Justice Select Committee
Sought advice about taking a part-time, paid appointment as an independent consultant with HDG Ltd and Kilbride Group in 2014. Also advised about accepting a commission with Cratus Communications, a communications firm specialising in local government and planning, as a non-executive director on the board in 2014.
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, 2010-12. Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Secretary, 2012-14
Took up a role as consultant at Randox Laboratories Ltd in 2015.
Conservative Party Chairman 2012-15, International Development Minister 2015-15, currently Secretary of State for Transport
Sought the committee’s advice about taking an appointment with Avanti Communications Group in 2017. Avanti is a provider of satellite data communications services in Europe, Africa and the Middle East. The committee considered there was a risk he could be seen to offer Avanti an unfair advantage as a result of contracts gained in office and set a number of conditions. The appointment was taken up in 2017.
Baroness Shields was Under-Secretary for Internet Safety and Security at the Home Office under David Cameron from 2015-17 and went on to become Theresa May’s Special Representative on Internet Crime and Harms from 2016-18
Took up an appointment as non-executive chairman at CognitionX in 2018, and as a commissioner at the Transatlantic Commission on Election Integrity in the same year. She also took up an appointment as Chief Executive Officer at Benevolent AI in 2018.
Under Secretary for Overseas Territories, 2012-14. Under-Secretary for Africa 2012-14
Took up appointments as vice president and trustee of the British Institute in Eastern Africa in 2016, strategic adviser at Farallon Capital in 2016, adviser at Bechtel in 2015, Honorary Vice President, Fauna and Flora International in 2015, non-executive director at African Potash in 2015, senior strategic adviser to the International Hospitals Group in 2015, managing director of Kroll in 2015, chief operating officer at the Counter Extremism Project in 2015, chairman of the advisory board of Invest Africa in 2014, Strategic Adviser at First in 2014, non-executive deputy chairman at the Commonwealth Enterprise and Investment Council in 2014, and chief executive officer of Mortlock Simmonds Ltd in 2014.
Minister for Culture and the Digital Economy 2010-16
Since leaving the Government, Lord Ed Vaizey of Didcot as taken up appointments as consultant with LionTree Europe in 2016, chair of the advisory board of Creative Fuse North East in 2016, chairman of the advisory board at the International eGames Committee, trustee at BRITDOC Charitable Trust, trustee of the National Youth Theatre of Great Britain in 2017, as a member of the advisory board at the Sunday Times Short Story Award in 2017, president of the Advisory Board, British Esports Association Limited in 2017, adviser of International Group Management in 2017, judge of the Indigo Index Prize in 2017, adviser of Digital Theatre Plus in 2017, and member of the advisory board, NEC Europe Ltd (NEC) in 2018.
Faith and Communities Minister 2012-14, South Asia and Central Asia 2012-14
Took up an appointment as Pro-Vice Chancellor of Bolton University in 2016. She also sought advice from the committee for becoming a speaker at Specialist Speakers and a role as adviser at Rupert’s Recipes Ltd. She took up a role as adviser to the Shire Bed Company in 2015. She also sought advice about a role as adviser to M&C Saatchi World Services in 2016.
Universities and Science Minister, 2010-14
Took appointments as non-executive director at the Biotech Growth Trust in 2015, honorary president of the International Student Foundation in 2016, independent trustee director, Francis Crick Institute in 2015, non-executive board member of the National Council for Universities and Business (NCUB) in 2015, board member of the Biotech Industry Association (BIA) in 2015, executive chairman of the Resolution Foundation in 2015, chair of the British Science Association in 2015, senior non-executive director at Surrey Satellite Technologies Ltd (SSTL) in 2015, education investment adviser for Silvertown Partnership in 2014, member of the Higher Education Strategic Management Board at TES in 2014, and as visiting professor at King’s College London in 2014.
After being sacked from Cabinet by Theresa May and before being brought back by Boris Johnson, Priti Patel advised communications company Viasat on its work in Asia (Photo: Matt Dunham – WPA Pool/Getty)
Solicitor General for England and Wales 2010-12
Lord Edward Garnier asked for the committee’s advice about accepting a paid retainer to DLA Piper through his private practice, One Brick Court, in 2014. The application was approved by the committee subject to conditions.
Minister for Energy and Climate change, 2010-12
Sought advice on appointments as chairman of Forewind Ltd in 2013, for a commission with Atlantic Supergrid Corporation LLP in 2013, for an appointment as the chairman of the advisory board of the Russo-British Chamber of Commerce in 2013, as a consultant for Vitol Services Ltd and as visiting professor at the University of Edinburgh in 2012. The applications were approved subject to conditions.
Sir Peter Luff
Minister for Defence Equipment, Support and Technology 2010-12
Took up roles as chairman of the oversight board at the Royal United Services Institute and the University of Roehampton in 2014, and as chairman of the board of directors at the Pub Governing Body in 2014.
Minister for Intellectual Property in the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills in 2012. David Cameron’s trade envoy from 2011 to 2014
Sought advice on a part-time, unpaid appointment as non-executive director with Three Jays Ltd, director/chairman of the Commonwealth Business Council in 2013, as director of testmatchextra.com Ltd in 2014, as non-executive director of Tamara Mellon Inc and as chairman of his own personal investment company Herriot Ltd, in 2013. The application were approved with conditions.
International Development Secretary 2010-12. Chief Whip 2012
Asked for advice on a paid appointment to the advisory board of The Foundation in 2013, as strategic advisor with Montrose Associates in 2013 and a part-time paid appointment as senior advisor to East End Foods Plc, and as a senior advisor to Investec in 2013. The applications were approved by the committee subject to conditions.
Sir James Paice
Minister for Agriculture and Food 2010-12
After he left the Government in 2012, applications were approved for a part-time role as non-executive chairman of First Milk and non-executive director of Camgrain.
Business and Enterprise Minister 2010-12. Minister for Housing and Local Government 2012-13
Took up an appointment in 2014 as an advisor to Essential Living, a private property developer.
Under-Secretary for Overseas Territories, United Nations and Climate Change, 2010-12, Under-Secretary for Africa, 2010-12
Sought advice on taking a paid appointment as non-executive director of Developing Markets Associates Ltd in 2013, and as non-executive director of Pontus Marine Ltd, and non-executive chairman of Pathfinder Minerals Ltd in 2014. The applications were approved with conditions.